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Labour Force Surveys (LFS) – Theme: The labour market in 2018 for persons living with children under the age of 12

Men with young children work more

Statistical news from Statistics Sweden 2019-06-11 9.30

In 2018, the employment rate among persons living with children under the age of 12 was higher among those aged 20-49 than among the “others” group. Among persons with young children, the employment rate was higher for men than for women. Among employed women with young children, 34.6 percent worked part-time. The corresponding rate among men was 8.9 percent.

This theme report describes the labour market for persons aged 20-49 living with young children under the age of 12. The report focuses on a comparison between men and women with regard to the labour market for people with children under the age of 12. Comparisons arealso made with the “others” group, which comprises persons living with children aged 12 and older, as well as persons who do not live with any children.

Higher employment rate among men with younger children

In 2018, the employment rate among persons aged 20-49 living with children under the age of 12 was higher than among the group “others”. The employment rate among persons with young children was 88.3 percent and the corresponding rate among others was 79.2 percent. This is explained, in part, by the fact that persons with young children were, on average, slightly older than others. There is also a distinct difference between men and women in the group with younger children. Among men with young children, the employment rate was 94.1 percent and among women it was 83.0 percent, a difference of 11.1 percentage points. The employment rate is significantly higher among men with young children than among other men. Among women with young children, the employment rate was, basically, the same as among other women.

The employment rate among men with young children is higher than among women with young children for all age groups. Among persons aged 20-29 with young children, the employment rate for men was 26.0 percentage points higher than for women. Among men in that age group, the employment rate was 90.9 percent and among women it was 64.9 percent. The difference between the sexes declines with increasing age; among persons aged 40-49, the difference between the sexes is 5.1 percentage points.

Employment rate varies with level of education

The difference in employment rate between men and women varied with the level of education. The largest difference in employment rate between men and women was among those with compulsory education. The employment rate was 78.2 percent among men with compulsory education living with young children, while the corresponding rate among women was 43.2 percent, a difference of 35.0 percentage points. The difference between men and women declines with higher education levels. Among persons with post-secondary education the employment rate was 7.0 percentage points higher for men than for women. The employment rate was higher among persons with post-secondary education compared to those with compulsory education, 96.0 percent and 89.0 percent, respectively.

The difference in employment rate between men and women living with young children was higher among foreign born persons than among Swedish born persons. The employment rate was 84.1 percent among foreign born men with young children, and 62.5 percent among foreign born women, a difference of 21.6 percentage points. Among Swedish born persons with young children the corresponding rate was 97.6 percent for men and 91.9 percent for women, a difference of 5.7 percentage points.

Part-time work was more common among women with young children than among men. Among women in employment with young children, 34.6 percent worked part-time. The corresponding rate among men was 8.9 percent. Similarly, among the others group, part-time work was more common for women, 30.2 percent. Among men in the others group, 15.4 percent worked part-time.

Unemployment higher among women with compulsory education

Among persons aged 20-49 with younger children, 4.7 percent were unemployed in 2018. This can be compared to 7.3 percent among the others group. Among persons with younger children, the unemployment rate was 3.4 percent for men and 6.0 percent for women, a difference of 2.6 percentage points. Unlike for those with young children, the unemployment rate was higher for men, 8.0 percent, compared to women, 6.4 percent.

The difference in unemployment rate between men and women with younger children was greatest among younger persons. The unemployment rate among men aged 20-29 with younger children was 4.5 percent and the corresponding rate among women was 11.8 percent, a difference of 7.3 percentage points. As with the employment rate, the difference in unemployment between men and women declines with increasing age. For persons aged 40-49 with younger children, the rate of unemployment was 3.3 percent among men and 4.1 percent among women.

In the same way that the employment rate was lowest among women with compulsory education and younger children, the unemployment rate was highest among persons with this level of education. The unemployment rate among women with compulsory education and young children was 33.3 percent. This is 17.9 percentage points higher than among men with compulsory education and children, for whom the unemployment rate is 15.4 percent. Both the level of unemployment and the difference between men and women declines with increasing level of education. Among persons with younger children and post-secondary education, the unemployment rate for men and women was 2.1 percent and 3.3 percent, respectively.

Among foreign born persons with younger children, the unemployment rate was higher, and the difference between men and women was greater compared with Swedish born persons. The unemployment rate among foreign born women with younger children was 17.6 percent, which is 7.1 percentage points higher than among foreign born men where 10.5 percent were unemployed. Among Swedish born men and women the unemployment rate was 1.0 percent and 1.8 percent, respectively.

The unemployment rate was slightly lower among women with younger children living in rural area communities, compared to those living in metropolitan and urban municipalities. The unemployment rate among women with younger children living in rural area municipalities was 4.7 percent. The corresponding rate among women living in metropolitan municipalities was 6.8 percent. The unemployment rate among men with younger children was, basically, the same regardless of level of urbanisation.

Smaller share not in the labour force among men with young children

Among persons aged 20-49 with children under the age of 12, the rate of those not in the labour force, that is, persons who neither work nor are unemployed, was 7.4 percent. The corresponding rate among the others group was 14.5 percent. Women were not in the labour force to a higher extent than men. The rate of persons with younger children not in the labour force was 2.6 percent for men and 11.8 percent for women, a difference of 9.2 percentage points. The corresponding rate among the others group was 13.9 percent and 15.3 percent for men and women respectively.

The share of those not in the labour force was highest among younger persons. The difference between men and women is also largest in the youngest age group. Among women aged 20-29, 26.4 percent were not in the labour force and among men the corresponding share was 4.6 percent, a difference of 21.8 percentage points. The gap between men and women in labour force participation shrinks with increasing age; women are to a higher extent not in the labour force.

The share of persons not in the labour force was higher among persons with compulsory education compared to persons with a higher level of education. With regard to labour force participation, the differences between the sexes were also greater among those with lower levels of education. The share of those not in the labour force was 7.6 percent among men with younger children and a compulsory education and 35.2 percent among women. This can be compared to men and women with younger children and a post-secondary education, where the corresponding shares were 2.0 and 8.0 percent, respectively.

The rate of persons not in the labour force, as well as the difference between men and women, was higher among foreign born persons than among Swedish born persons. The share of persons not in the labour force among foreign born men and women was 6.0 percent and 24.1 percent respectively, a difference of 18.1 percentage points. In comparison, 1.4 percent and 6.3 percent of Swedish born men and women, respectively, were not in the labour force. Among the others group, the share of those not in the labour force was relatively similar between Swedish born and foreign born persons. The share of those not in the labour force was 13.6 percent among other men and 14.7 percent other women. The corresponding rate among other foreign born men was 14.8 percent and 17.7 percent among women.

Publication

A more detailed report is available in the report The labour market in 2018 for persons living with children under the age of 12.  (Statistical Report AM 110 SM 1902).

Labour Force Surveys (LFS) – Theme: Theme: The labour market in 2018 for persons living with children under the age of 12

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