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Environmental accounts – Emissions to air Q4 2016 and preliminary statistics for 2016:

Greenhouse gas emissions increased during all quarters of 2016

Statistical news from Statistics Sweden 2017-05-05 9.30

Emissions of greenhouse gases increased during all four quarters of 2016, while the Swedish economy continued to grow. The increase is mainly found in shipping and aviation, manufacturing industries and electricity, gas and heating. Emissions from households decreased in 2016 due to increased use of biodiesel in passenger cars.

The Environmental Accounts at Statistics Sweden presents emissions to air from the Swedish economy, or ‘production-based’ emissions. Preliminary statistics on emissions by industry for the fourth quarter of 2016 and the entire year 2016 are now available.

More information (in Swedish) about different ways to calculate emissions:

Detailed information on environmental accounts

The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency: Three ways of calculating emissions that affect the climate

In the fourth quarter of 2016, greenhouse gas emissions from the Swedish economy and households amounted to 16.3 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents. This is an increase of 3.5 percent compared with the same quarter in 2015 and it is the fourth consecutive quarter that emissions levels increase. Compared with 2015, GDP growth was 2.6 percent in the fourth quarter.

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the Swedish economy and households in 2016 amounted to 62.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents. This is an increase of 1.7 percent compared with 2015. In 2016, the GDP increased by 3.1 percent.

There are several explanations for the increased emissions in 2016. Emissions from manufacturing industries increased, while emissions levels for electricity, gas and heating are back to levels before the decline in 2015, which was mainly due to temporary disruptions. Emissions from the transport industry increase significantly – mainly from shipping, but also from aviation increase due to increased travel both domestically and internationally.

Emissions from households, mainly from passenger cars, decreased by 3.6 percent 2016 compared with 2015. In the fourth quarter of 2016, emissions from households decreased even more, 4.4 percent compared with the same quarter 2015.

The decreased emissions from households in 2016 are due to a significant increase in the share of biodiesel included in diesel at fuel stations. The use of fossil diesel and gasoline is decreasing, resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions from road transports and working machinery – despite the fact that road traffic increased in 2016. The decrease in emissions from road transports and working machinery is most significant for households.

Economic growth in 2016 is present in most industries, many of which have low emissions of greenhouse gases. Industries that are increasing value added most are real estate activities, wholesale and retail trade, construction and manufacture of motor vehicles. The largest decrease in value added is seen in the manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products.

Emissions of greenhouse gases and economic growth 2008–2016

Index 2008=100

Chart

Greenhouse gas emissions and value added 2016

Changes in percent compared with 2015.

Chart

Revisions

Since the previous publication on 2017-01-31, a number of revisions have been made for quarters 2008Q1–2016Q3. This is mainly due to updated annual statistics published in March. In the annual statistics, many emissions have been reallocated for working machinery and off-road vehicles and other emissions (from industrial processes etc.). In the annual statistics, there is also a revision for heat production using waste as a fuel starting in 2015. Other revisions include minor updates in Quarterly fuel statistics and Monthly fuel statistics 2016 as well as minor updates in Industrial Production Index. For some industries, most notably mining, manufacture of electrical equipment and hotels and restaurants, the reallocations result in significant changes in emission estimates. However, at national level, emissions are more or less the same for all quarters.

More information (in Swedish) on the revisions is available at the Environmental Accounts’ product page under Documentation.

Environmental Accounts

Developments in different industries

The connection between emissions of greenhouse gases and industry’s contribution to the Swedish economy varies between industries due to the different types of activities in each industry. Some industries are emissions-intensive, and increased production means higher emissions, while other industries may increase value added without any significant increase in emissions levels.

2016, preliminary statistics

Greenhouse gas emissions and value added 2016 by industry NACE 2007

Thousands tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents and constant prices, reference year 2015, SEK millions.

SectorEmissions of
greenhouse gases
Value added
 2016Change
compared
to 2015
2016Change
compared
to 2015
Agriculture, forestry
and fishing
9 046 ‑74 ‑0.8% 50 948 2 199 4.5%
Mining 1 296 ‑168 ‑11.5% 16 569 1 257 8.2%
Manufacturing 14 837 526 3.7% 632 497 3 568 0.6%
Electricity, gas, heat,
water, waste
8 684 510 6.2% 109 810 ‑554 ‑0.5%
Construction 1 856 ‑73 ‑3.8% 230 156 12 476 5.7%
Transport 13 466 809 6.4% 161 788 1 048 0.7%
Other services 3 367 ‑121 ‑3.5% 1 795 296 72 997 4.2%
Public sector 714 ‑2 ‑0.3% 764 549 19 263 2.6%
Households and
non-profit institutions [1]
9 626 ‑360 ‑3.6% 50 942 981 2.0%
Total economy 62 894 1 046 1.7% 3 812 555 113 235 3.1%

[1] Only non-profit institutions provide value added.

Agriculture, forestry and fishing: Agriculture, forestry and fishing accounted for 14 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions. Most greenhouse gases emitted in this sector (around 90 percent) come from agriculture. Emissions of greenhouse gases decreased by 0.8 percent in 2016 compared with 2015. Forestry accounts for more than 70 percent of value added in this sector. Value added in the whole sector increased by 4.5 percent in 2016 compared with 2015. 

Mining: Emissions from mining accounts for 2 percent of all emissions in the Swedish economy and households. Emissions decreased by 11.5 percent in 2016 compared with 2015. Value added increased by 8.2 percent in 2016 compared with 2015.

Manufacturing: Manufacturing accounts for 24 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions in the Swedish economy and households. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 3.7 percent in 2016 compared with 2015. In the period, value added decreased by 0.6 percent. Industries that contributed the most to greenhouse gas emissions are steel, metal, chemicals production, refineries and cement production.

Electricity, gas, heat, water and waste: Greenhouse gas emissions in this sector annually account for 14 percent of total emissions of greenhouse gases from the Swedish economy and households. Most emissions of greenhouse gases (65 to 85 percent each quarter) come from electricity and heat production. Emissions levels in 2016 were 6.2 percent higher than in 2015. The decline in 2015 was mainly due to temporary disruptions in plants using fossil fuels. In the period, value added decreased by 0.5 percent. 

Construction: Greenhouse gas emissions in this sector account for 3 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions in the Swedish economy and households. Emissions arise mainly from transport, machinery and industrial vehicles. In 2016, model-estimated emissions decreased by 3.8 percent, while value added increased by 5.7 percent compared with the same period in 2015. 

Transport: Greenhouse gas emissions in the transport industry account for 21 percent of total emissions in the Swedish economy and households. Emissions increased by 6.4 percent in 2016 compared with 2015. Emissions mainly come from maritime traffic, but the increase in 2016 is from both maritime traffic and aviation. Travel by air, both domestic and international, increased in 2016. Value added increased by 0.7 percent in 2016 compared with 2015.

Other services: Greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector account for 5 percent of total emissions in the Swedish economy and households. Emissions in these industries are relatively small compared with value added and are mainly due to road transports. In 2016, emissions decreased by 3.5 percent, while value added increased by 4.2 percent compared with 2015.

Public sector: Greenhouse gas emissions in the public sector (central government, county and municipality) account for about 1 percent of total emissions in the Swedish economy and households. Emissions arise mainly from working machinery, road transports and military activities. Emissions decreased by 0.3 percent in 2016 compared with 2015. Value added increased by 2.6 percent in the same period.

Households and non-profit institutions: Greenhouse gas emissions from households and non-profit institutions account for 15 percent of total emissions in the Swedish economy and households. Emissions arise mainly from households’ car transport. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased by 3.6 percent in 2016 compared with 2015. This is due to increased use of biodiesel and reduced use of gasoline and fossil diesel. Only non-profit institutions contribute with a small level of value added.

Developments in the fourth quarter 2016

Greenhouse gas emissions and value added, fourth quarter 2016 by industry NACE 2007

Thousands tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents and constant prices, reference year 2015, SEK millions.

SectorEmissions of
greenhouse gases
Value added
 2016Q4Change
compared
to same
quarter 2015
2016Q4Change
compared
to same
quarter 2015
Agriculture, forestry
and fishing
2 311 4 0.2% 10 786 451 4.4%
Mining 325 ‑51 ‑13.6% 3 425 153 4.7%
Manufacturing 3 888 214 5.8% 162 895 ‑2 174 ‑1.3%
Electricity, gas, heat,
water, waste
2 448 64 2.7% 28 715 ‑388 ‑1.3%
Construction 492 ‑7 ‑1.3% 60 035 1 881 3.2%
Transport 3 471 476 15.9% 43 749 860 2.0%
Other services 851 ‑28 ‑3.1% 478 868 19 825 4.3%
Public sector 180 ‑4 ‑2.3% 202 933 4 902 2.5%
Households and
non-profit institutions [1]
2 367 ‑110 ‑4.4% 13 311 304 2.3%
Total economy 16 334 560 3.5% 1 004 717 25 814 2.6%

1 Only non-profit institutions provide value added.

Agriculture, forestry and fishing: Agriculture, forestry and fishing accounted for 14 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions. Most greenhouse gases emitted in this sector (around 90 percent) come from agriculture. Emissions of greenhouse gases increased by 0.7 percent in the fourth quarter compared with the same quarter of 2015. Forestry accounts for more than 70 percent of value added in this sector. Value added in the whole sector increased by 4.4 percent in the fourth quarter of 2016 compared with the same quarter of 2015.

Mining: Emissions from mining accounts for 2 percent of all emissions in the Swedish economy and households. Emissions decreased by 13.6 percent in the fourth quarter compared with the same quarter of 2015. Value added increased by 4.7 percent in the fourth quarter of 2016 compared with the same quarter of 2015.

Manufacturing: : Manufacturing accounts for 24 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions in the Swedish economy and households. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 5.8 percent in the fourth quarter of 2016 compared with the same quarter of 2015. In the period, value added decreased by 1.3 percent. Industries that contribute the most to greenhouse gas emissions are steel, metal, chemicals production, refineries and cement production.

Electricity, gas, heat, water and waste: Greenhouse gas emissions in this sector annually account for 15 percent of total emissions of greenhouse gases from the Swedish economy and households. Most emissions of greenhouse gases (65 to 85 percent each quarter) come from electricity and heat production. Emissions levels in the fourth quarter 2016 were 2.7 percent higher than in the same quarter of 2015. In the period, value added decreased by 1.3 percent.

Construction: Greenhouse gas emissions in this sector account for 3 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions in the Swedish economy and households. Emissions arise mainly from transport, machinery and industrial vehicles. In the fourth quarter of 2016, model-estimated emissions decreased by 1.3 percent, while value added increased by 3.2 percent compared with the same period in 2015.

Transport: Greenhouse gas emissions in the transport industry account for 21 percent of total emissions in the Swedish economy and households. Emissions increased by 15.9 percent in the fourth quarter in 2016 compared with the same quarter in 2015. Emissions come mainly from maritime traffic, but the increase in the fourth quarter is from both maritime traffic and aviation. Value added increased by 2.0 percent in the fourth quarter of 2016 compared with the same quarter of 2015.

Other services: Greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector account for 5 percent of total emissions in the Swedish economy and households. Emissions in these industries are relatively small compared to value added and are mainly due to road transports. In the fourth quarter of 2016, emissions decreased by 3.1 percent, while value added increased by 4.3 percent compared with the same quarter in 2015.

Public sector: Greenhouse gas emissions in the public sector (central government, county and municipality) account for about 1 percent of total emissions in the Swedish economy and households. Emissions arise mainly from working machinery, road transports and military activities. Emissions decreased by 2.3 percent in the fourth quarter of 2016 compared with the same quarter in 2015. Value added increased 2.5 percent in the same period.

Households and non-profit institutions: Greenhouse gas emissions from households and non-profit institutions account for 14 percent of total emissions in the Swedish economy and households. Emissions arise mainly from households’ car transport. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased by 4.4 percent in the fourth quarter of 2016 compared with the same quarter in 2015. This is due to increased use of biodiesel and reduced use of gasoline and fossil diesel. Only non-profit institutions contribute with a small level of value added.

Definitions and explanations

The Environmental Accounts are compiled within the framework of the System of Environmental and Economic Accounts (SEEA) and show national environmental statistics and economic statistics in the same framework using NACE industry classification. Environmentally-related statistics connected to the system of national accounts enable an analysis between the Swedish economy and the impact that each industry has on the environment. Emissions from international bunkers, that is, international aviation and navigation arriving and refuelling at Swedish airports and harbours are included. Emissions and removals from land use and land use change (LULUCF) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) are not included.

Annual Environmental Accounts on emissions to air by industry currently has a production time of 15 months. There is a demand for more up-to-date statistics on emissions to air of greenhouse gases. To meet this need, the Environmental Accounts at Statistics Sweden have developed quarterly statistics on emissions to air by industry that is also used to produce preliminary annual statistics.

Quarterly statistics on all greenhouse gases and a number of air pollutants are available in Sweden’s Statistical Database. Excel spread sheets are also available for download on Statistics Sweden’s website, and include data and figures on greenhouse gas emissions and emissions intensities by value added and by employees.

The statistics on air emissions are based on a production perspective. Emissions are reported for the industry where emissions occur. Indirect emissions from imports and other consumption of goods and services are not included.

Environmental Accounts

Statistics on emissions to air provided by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) follow the UNFCCC framework, covering emissions within Sweden’s territory. Sectors are listed by emissions category, not by industry. Emissions and removals from land use and land use change are included, while emissions from international aviation and navigation are reported separately.

The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency’s statistics on emissions to air

More information (in Swedish) on different ways to calculate emissions:

Detailed information on environmental accounts

The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency: Three ways of calculating emissions that affect the climate

Next publishing will be

The next statistical news on quarterly emissions to air up to and including the first quarter of 2017 is scheduled for publication 2017-08-30 at 09:30. Preliminary annual statistics for 2016 is also published at the same time.

The next statistical news on regional emissions to air up to and including 2015 is scheduled for publication on 2017-11-09 at 09:30.

The next statistical news on annual emissions to air 2008–2016 (final statistics) is scheduled for publication in spring 2018.

Statistical Database

More information is available in the Statistical Database

Feel free to use the facts from this statistical news but remember to state Source: Statistics Sweden.

Statistical agency and producer

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